2) What are the layers of the OSI reference model?
There are 7 OSI layers: Physical Layer, Data Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport Layer, Session Layer, Presentation Layer and Application Layer.
3) What is backbone network?
A backbone network is a centralized infrastructure that is designed to distribute different routes and data to various networks. It also handles management of bandwidth and various channels.
4) What is a LAN?
LAN is short for Local Area Network. It refers to the connection between computers and other network devices that are located within a small physical location.
5) What is a node?
A node refers to a point or joint where a connection takes place. It can be computer or device that is part of a network. Two or more nodes are needed in order to form a network connection.
6) What are routers?
Routers can connect two or more network segments. These are intelligent network devices that store information in its routing table such as paths, hops and bottlenecks. With this info, they are able to determine the best path for data transfer. Routers operate at the OSI Network Layer.
7) What is point to point link?
It refers to a direct connection between two computers on a network. A point to point connection does not need any other network devices other than connecting a cable to the NIC cards of both computers.
8) What is anonymous FTP?
Anonymous FTP is a way of granting user access to files in public servers. Users that are allowed access to data in these servers do not need to identify themselves, but instead log in as an anonymous guest.
9) What is subnet mask?
A subnet mask is combined with an IP address in order to identify two parts: the extended network address and the host address. Like an IP address, a subnet mask is made up of 32 bits.
10) What is the maximum length allowed for a UTP cable?
A single segment of UTP cable has an allowable length of 90 to 100 meters. This limitation can be overcome by using repeaters and switches.
11) What is data encapsulation?
Data encapsulation is the process of breaking down information into smaller manageable chunks before it is transmitted across the network. It is also in this process that the source and destination addresses are attached into the headers, along with parity checks.
12) Describe Network Topology
Network Topology refers to the layout of a computer network. It shows how devices and cables are physically laid out, as well as how they connect to one another.
13) What is VPN?
VPN means Virtual Private Network, a technology that allows a secure tunnel to be created across a network such as the Internet. For example, VPNs allow you to establish a secure dial-up connection to a remote server.
14) Briefly describe NAT.
NAT is Network Address Translation. This is a protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a common network to share single connection to the Internet.
15) What is the job of the Network Layer under the OSI reference model?
The Network layer is responsible for data routing, packet switching and control of network congestion. Routers operate under this layer.
16) How does a network topology affect your decision in setting up a network?
Network topology dictates what media you must use to interconnect devices. It also serves as basis on what materials, connector and terminations that is applicable for the setup.
17) What is RIP?
RIP, short for Routing Information Protocol is used by routers to send data from one network to another. It efficiently manages routing data by broadcasting its routing table to all other routers within the network. It determines the network distance in units of hops.
18) What are different ways of securing a computer network?
There are several ways to do this. Install reliable and updated anti-virus program on all computers. Make sure firewalls are setup and configured properly. User authentication will also help a lot. All of these combined would make a highly secured network.
19) What is NIC?
NIC is short for Network Interface Card. This is a peripheral card that is attached to a PC in order to connect to a network. Every NIC has its own MAC address that identifies the PC on the network.
20) What is WAN?
WAN stands for Wide Area Network. It is an interconnection of computers and devices that are geographically dispersed. It connects networks that are located in different regions and countries.
21) What is the importance of the OSI Physical Layer?
The physical layer does the conversion from data bits to electrical signal, and vice versa. This is where network devices and cable types are considered and setup.
22) How many layers are there under TCP/IP?
There are four layers: the Network Layer, Internet Layer, Transport Layer and Application Layer.
23) What are proxy servers and how do they protect computer networks?
Proxy servers primarily prevent external users who identifying the IP addresses of an internal network. Without knowledge of the correct IP address, even the physical location of the network cannot be identified. Proxy servers can make a network virtually invisible to external users.
24) What is the function of the OSI Session Layer?
This layer provides the protocols and means for two devices on the network to communicate with each other by holding a session. This includes setting up the session, managing information exchange during the session, and tear-down process upon termination of the session.
25) What is the importance of implementing a Fault Tolerance System? Are there limitations?
A fault tolerance system ensures continuous data availability. This is done by eliminating a single point of failure. However, this type of system would not be able to protect data in some cases, such as in accidental deletions.