Water in a hydraulic system exhibits two types of energy – kinetic and potential. Kinetic energy when water is in motion and potential is when there is water pressure. The sum of both kinetic and potential forms is the total energy of water. According to Bernoulli’s principle, the total energy of the liquid remains constant and hence when water flow in a system increases, the pressure must decrease.

Bernoulli’s principle states that for an inviscid flow of a nonconducting fluid, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or decrease in the potential energy. Bernoulli’s principle can be applied to various types of liquid flow, resulting in what is denoted as Bernoulli’s equation. The simple form of Bernoulli’s principle is applicable for incompressible flows.

The Bernoulli’s equation formula is given by

E = Z+ P / W + V2 / 2g


E denotes total energy

z is the height of the water

P means pressure

w is the unit weight of water

V indicates flow velocity

g is acceleration due to gravity

Example 1

A pipe has an internal diameter of 2.2 cm and pressure of 2.5 x 105 Pa supplies water into a house. Calculate the pressure of flow in the pipe which enters with an inlet pipe diameter of 1.5 cm at a height of 5m above ground. The inlet pipe flow speed is 1.8 m / s.


v2 =a1v1 / a2 or (pie) ∗ (1.1)2

= 2.178 / 0. 5625

=3.872 m/s

P2 = 2.5∗105 Pa – 1/2[1∗103 kg/m3] [14.99 − 3.24] – [1 * 103] [9.8] [5]

P2= (2.5 x 105) – (5.88 x 103) – (49 x 103)Pa

P2 = 1.95 * 105 Pa

Give A message for us

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s