Protocols mean rules followed by devices for error free and reliable data communications.
In a network, there are many devices connected with each other for exchange of data and information with each other.
And in order to have a smooth and correct exchange of information between various connected devices in network, these devices must adhered to some set of rules and these rules are known as protocols
A protocol normally defines three aspects for data communication:
§ Syntax define the format of data being exchanged, character set used in data, type of error correction used, type of encoding scheme used, etc.
§ Semantics define the order of message used to ensure reliable and error free information transfer.
§ Timing defines the rate/speed for data transfer.
§ Custom Chips
TCP/IP is the most popular protocol for exchange of information between networks.
It is known as protocol of internet for exchange of data. It is also known asPPP(Point to Protocol).
A number of different protocols are in use for different applications e.g. X. 12 used in EDI, X.75 used for interconnection among different countries.
§ OSI is also known as Open System Interconnection.
§ International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) has outlined certain rules to be adopted for communication among different types of hardware or devices.
§ These rules ultimately function as protocols.
§ ISO has defined 7 layers controls for data communication.
§ TCP/IP is also known as Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol.
§ This protocol is used for internet data communication.
§ This protocol has two parts.
· TCP: This part deals with exchange of data that creating data packets etc.
· IP This part handles packet forwarding that transferring data packets on channels.