Protocols mean rules followed by devices for error free and reliable data communications.

In a network, there are many devices connected with each other for exchange of data and information with each other.

And in order to have a smooth and correct exchange of information between various connected devices in network, these devices must adhered to some set of rules and these rules are known as protocols

A protocol normally defines three aspects for data communication:

§  Syntax define the format of data being exchanged, character set used in data, type of error correction used, type of encoding scheme used, etc.

§  Semantics define the order of message used to ensure reliable and error free information transfer.

§  Timing defines the rate/speed for data transfer.

§  Custom Chips

TCP/IP is the most popular protocol for exchange of information between networks.

It is known as protocol of internet for exchange of data. It is also known asPPP(Point to Protocol).

A number of different protocols are in use for different applications e.g. X. 12 used in EDI, X.75 used for interconnection among different countries.


§  OSI is also known as Open System Interconnection.

§  International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) has outlined certain rules to be adopted for communication among different types of hardware or devices.

§  These rules ultimately function as protocols.

§  ISO has defined 7 layers controls for data communication.


§  TCP/IP is also known as Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol.

§  This protocol is used for internet data communication.

§  This protocol has two parts.

·         TCP: This part deals with exchange of data that creating data packets etc.

·         IP This part handles packet forwarding that transferring data packets on channels.


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