Data processing is a computer-networking method in which multiple computers across different locations share computer-processing capability.
This is in contrast to a single, centralized server managing and providing processing capability to all connected systems.
Computers that comprise the distributed data-processing network are located at different locations but interconnected by means of wireless or satellite links.
There are three types of data processing techniques in terms of locations of data processing facilities.
§ Centralized Data Processing
§ Decentralized Data Processing
§ Distributed Data Processing
Centralized Data Processing:
§ In Centralized Data Processing, the data processing is done at one location such as at head office of organization; branches normally would not have any local computer processing facilities.
Decentralized Data Processing:
§ In Decentralized Data Processing, the different location has their own processing facilities but processing locations would not be linked with each other to share data and information.
Distributed Data Processing:
§ Distributed Data Processing is latest data processing technique, and in this, the processing facilities are distributed at different locations.
§ But these processing locations are linked with each other to share information and resources, and to provide processing from any locations.
§ Distributed Data Processing system is network of several computers, each of which is linked to a host or central computer known as Server.
§ This larger central computer or servers maintains the master database.
§ Each local system is a fully independent computer that maintains its own local database as well as communication link with the master database.
§ These individual local systems are linked to server through a high speed data communication channel.
§ These links allow individual computers to communicate with another through central server.
§ Distributed Data Processing systems have many advantages. For example: A local computers on the network offer immediate response to local needs, and these computers can also access information from other systems on the network as and when required through central server.
§ Online Processing System and Real-Time Processing System always use the concept of distributed data processing example: banks, railway reservations etc.
As we know that for Distributed Data Processing the most important thing is communication between various systems connected on network.
Therefore, Data Communication is main technique which makes Distributed Data Processing is possible.
Advantages of Distributed Data Processing:
§ Lower Cost