Introduction :

The term DOS can refer to any operating system, but it is most often used as shorthand for MS-DOS (Microsoft disk operating system). Originally developed by Microsoft for IBM, MS-DOS was the standard operating system for IBM-compatible personal computers.DOS is a tool which allows you to control the operation of the IBM PC. DOS is software which was written to control hardware.

DOS is a non-graphical command line operating system derived from 86-DOS. MS-DOS originally written by Tim Paterson and introduced by Microsoft in August 1981 and was last updated in 1994 when MS-DOS 6.22 was released. MS-DOS allows the user to navigate, open, and otherwise manipulate files on their computer from a command line instead of a GUI like Windows.

Windows DOS command prompt window Today, MS-DOS is no longer used; however, the command shell, more commonly known as the Windows command line is still used by many users. The picture to the right, is an example of what an MS-DOS window more appropriately referred to as the Windows command line looks like running under Microsoft Windows.

DOS Commands:


§  Sets the path to be searched for data files or displays the current search path. The APPEND command is similar to the PATH command that tells DOS where to search for program files (files with a .COM, .EXE, or .BAT filename extension). The APPEND command guides the search for data files (such as text files).


§  The command redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive. It can also display drive assignments or reset all drive letters to their original assignments.


§  This Command changes or views the attributes of one or more files. It defaults to displaying the attributes of all files in the current directory. The file attributes available include read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes. The command has the capability to process whole folders and sub folders of files.


§  The CHDIR (or the alternative name CD) command either displays or changes the current working directory.


§  CHKDSK verifies a storage volume (for example, a hard disk, disk partition or floppy disk) for file system integrity. The command has the ability to fix errors on a volume and recover information from defective disk sectors of a volume.


§  The CHOICE command is used in batch files to prompt the user to select one item from a set of single-character choices.


§  The CLS or CLRSCR command clears the terminal screen.


§  The DIR command displays the contents of a directory. The contents comprise the disk’s volume label and serial number; one directory or file name per line, including the file name extension, the file size in bytes, and the date and time the file was last modified; and the total number of files listed, their cumulative size, and the free space (in bytes) remaining on the disk.


§  The ECHO command prints its own arguments back out to the DOS equivalent of the standard output stream. Usually, this means directly to the screen, but the output of echo can be redirected, like any other command, to files or devices. Often used in batch files to print text out to the user. Another important use of the echo command is to toggle echoing of commands on and off in batch files.


§  The FIND command is a filter to find lines in the input data stream that contain or don’t contain a specified string and send these to the output data stream. It may also be used as a pipe.


§  Moves files or renames directories. DR-DOS used a separate command for renaming directories , render.


§  The PRINT command adds or removes files in the print queue.


§  Changes the name of a file (Renaming).


§  Display the system time and waits for the user to enter a new time. Complements the DATE command.


§  Copies files and directories, including lower-level directories if they exists.


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