Browser is a piece of software that acts as an interface between the user and the inner working of the internet, specifically the World Wide Web.

Browser is also referred to as web clients or universal clients, because in client/server model, the browser functions as the client program.

We can mold it. But most importantly, we can use it to connect people, communities, and countries around the world.

Need of Browser:

We can open different websites on the internet. A website consists of many web pages. Web pages contain hypertext, hyperlinks text etc. So we can say the combination of various inter related web pages is known as website.

Browser is required to see a page on website. Browser is a software that reads html files, formats them into WebPages and display them to the end user on the www.

Various web browsers are available like Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator etc.

Internet Domains:

A domain name is the internet address of a computer, All computer connected to the internet have a domain name. The Domain name is the key in identifying business on the internet.

Domains divide the World Wide Web sites into categories based on the nature of their owner and they are the important part of a web site’s address or uniform resource locator.

Best domain is that which must closely match the name of the business.

Domain names avoid the number confusion and allow sequences that look like human language to be assigned to block of numeric addresses. Common top-level domains are:-

§  .org for commercial enterprises/organisations.

§  .net for networks

§  .gov for government organisations

§  .edu for educational institutions

§  .mil for military services

§  .biz commercial and personal

§  .int for organisations established by internationals treaty

§  .info commercial and personal

§  .name for personal sites

What is meant by URL? :

URL(Uniform Resource Locator) represents a standardised addressing scheme for the internet resources, it helps the users to locate the resources by indicating where they are lying exactly.

It helps the users to locate the resources by indicating where they are exactly. Every resource available via www has a particular URL.

It consists of letters, numbers and punctuation marks, its structure is hierarchical and the hierarchy moves from left to right as


Downloading is the process of copying the data from remote computer onto your own computer while both these computers are connected to the Internet.

Various types of files or information like (programs or software, pictures, ringtones, movies clips, text files etc.) can be downloaded free of cost but for some information you have to pay.

To download some information, the following steps are used:

§  For copying software, files, images etc. onto your own computer, you have to search for the websites which can serve your purpose.

§  To download some information click either on the download option or some hyperlink to which other pages are attached/linked.

§  When you click this, the downloading process started.

§  When the downloading is completed, the data will be displayed on your computer screen.

§  Now to save this information on your computer click on the save button and give the filename/path where you want to store this information.

§  After saving it on your computer, you can refer this information in future and you don’t need to download it again from the remote site. It is already saved in your PC and the downloading time will be saved.


E-mail or Electronic mail is a system for exchanging messages through Internet. Most people use E-mail to send and receive messages from anywhere to anywhere in the world. It is a faster way to communicate which reaches the destination in few seconds. We can create, send and receive E-mail is by using an E-mail client on E-mail program and Internet connection through ISP or LAN.

Advantages of E-mail:

§  Freedom from Interruption: E-mails provide high speed transfer, thus allow the receiver to answer mail any time or do not answer at all.

§  Possible to Communicate with People: With e-mail, it is possible to communicate with more people at one time as compared to other Internet Service.

§  High Speed: E-mail reaches its destinations in minutes and seconds whereas the convention mail called ‘snail mail’ take days/weeks together to reach at its destination.

§  Time Saving: E-mail is very time saving mechanism, because it does not take much time to open or attach a message or write a mail. The only thing is required is the address of the person or organisation where the user wants to send the e-mail.

§  Anytime, Anywhere Service: E-mail can be sent or received 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. The user can keep record of mails received and mails sent in the computer which can be referred for future usage.

§  No stationery and littering required: E-mail does not require paper, pen, envelope, gum etc. It is sent/received using computer only. So it does not require any stationary or littering.

§  Storage of Incoming, sent and outgoing mails: The user can keep record of mails sent in the computer which can be referred for future usage.

§  Acknowledgement: The sending of e-mails are acknowledged, the user receives the message that the mail has been sent to the specified address. If the address is wrong, suitable message is flashed.

§  Economical: E-mails require no expenses at all. So the messages are sent and received without expenses. Thus e-mail is economical.

§  Facility of graphics/voice: E-mail can include graphics and voice. It can be used to transfer documents or audio messages. Letters, notes, files, reports etc, may also be sent.

Disadvantages of E-mail:

Inspite of many advantages, E-mail suffers from some disadvantages also.

§  E-mail can simply send/receive text messages. If you send or receive images, programs, brochures etc. You have to go through some extra steps like attaching or downloading.

§  Security problem is there on Internet. Since messages are passed from one system to another and sometimes through several networks. Someone can read your mail.

§  Sometimes you receive too much mails that your inbox is flooded with mails, then some extra time is needed to handle the inbox, moreover one must have time to delete the unnecessary mails so that amount of space become free for the next.

§  Knowledge of computer is must, only then the user can make use of e-mail services.


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