TYPES OF COMPUTER

Types of Computer:

1.      There are several different types of computers, each of which is surrounded to the humans. For example, there are desktops and laptops for home use and can carry them while travelling.

Basis of Classification:

Operational Principle

Size and Processing Power

Based on Use

Analog, Digital and Hybrid Computers

Mainframe and Micro- Computers

Desktop, Laptop, Tablets etc.

Based on Operational Principle :

Analog Computers

§  The Computer which provide us continuous information are called Analog Computers.

§  Analog data is of continuous nature and which is not discrete or separate.

§  They are the first computers being developed and provided the basis for the development of the modern digital computers.

§  Output from an analog computer is generally in the form of readings on a series of dial (Speedometer of a car) or a graph on strip chart.

§  They were widely used in scientific and industrial applications.

§  Astrolabe, MONIAC Computer, Water integrator, Mechanical Computer etc. are Analog Computers.

Digital Computers

§  A computer that performs calculations and logical operations represented as digits, usually in the binary number system of “0” and “1” are called Digital Computers.

§  In contrast to analog computers, digital machines work on numbers.

§  Each variable is converted into numbers and each number into binary form, i.e. 0 and 1.

§  It is this combination of 0 and 1 that does all the calculations.

§  They are versatile, accurate and reprogrammable.

§  All modern computers, laptops, and calculators are all digital computers.

Hybrid Computers

§  A hybrid is a combination of digital and analog computers. It combines the best features of both types of computers.

§  It has the speed of analog computer and the memory and accuracy of digital computer.

§  Hybrid computer is a digital computer that accepts analog signals, converts them to digital and processes them in digital form.

§  Hybrid Machines are generally used in scientific applications or in controlling industrial processes.

§  It is also used in hospitals to measure the heartbeat of the patient.

§  Hybrid Devices are also used in petrol pumps.

Based on Size and Processing Power :

Mainframe Computers

§  A mainframe computer is a very large computer capable of handling and processing very large amounts of data quickly.

§  They are used by large institutions, such as government agencies and large corporations.

§  Mainframe computers were developed in the 1950s.

§  Mainframe computers are designed to handle very high volumes of input and output and are optimized for computational speed.

§  A Mainframe computer has processing units (PUs), memory, I/O channels, control-units and peripheral devices.

§  A processing unit (PU) is the brain of the mainframe computer that executes instructions.

Micro Computers

§  A microcomputer is a complete computer on a smaller scale.

§  It is generally a synonym for the desktop computer which is designed for the individual.

§  It is smaller than a mainframe or a minicomputer.

§  A microcomputer’s CPU includes random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM) memory, input/output (I/O) ports, interconnecting wires and a motherboard.>

§  The first microcomputers became available in the 1970s and were used primarily by businesses.

§  They were cheaper than other systems; therefore people were able to buy them.

Based on Use :

Desktop Computers

Edit

§  A desktop computer (or desktop PC) is a computer that is designed to stay in a single location.

§  They usually consist of a monitor, keyboard, mouse and CPU.

§  The first desktop computer was the Hewlett Packard 9100A, introduced in 1968.

§  After that, there have been many millions of desktop computers released and used throughout the world.

Personal Computers

§  A personal computer is a general-purpose, cost-effective computer that is designed to be used by a single end-user.

§  Every PC is dependent on microprocessor technology, which allows PC makers to set the entire CPU on a single chip.

§  PCs usually consist Computer case, Power supply, Motherboard, RAM, Hard disk(s), CD/DVD drives/writers etc.

§  PCs are also used to create a network such as a LAN (Local Area Network).

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