MOTHERBOARD

A Motherboard is one of the most essential parts of a computer system

A Motherboard is the main circuit board in a computer.

It acts as a platform for various components and devices of computers; and allows these components and devices to interact and communicate with each other.

There are various types of motherboards available in the markets.

A motherboard may contain various components which vary from one motherboard to another.

Followings are the main components of motherboard:

§  Processor Slots

§  BIOS

§  CMOS

§  Power Supply Connectors

§  Expansion Slots

§  SIMM/DIMM Slots

§  PCI

§  AGP Slots

§  SCSI

§  Ports and Connectors

§  USB Ports

§  Other Connectors

Processor Slot:

·         The Processor houses the main power on Motherboard.

·         There are two main types of processor slots: Socket-7 and Slot-I.

BIOS:

·         It is known as Basic Input Output System.

·         The BIOS is a small chip on the motherboard like keyboard, monitor, disk drives, etc.

·         BIOS  is also known as ROM BIOS because it is a ROM Chip which contains System Software known as Basic Input Output System which is used for initial operation of computer.

·         BIOS  contains permanent instructions also known as Start-up Programs used in Booting or starting of computer.

·         You might have seen that When we starts a computer; there are black and white outputs on screen before window is loaded, these black and white outputs indicate the correct working of various devices and these provided through instructions of BIOS.

·         The latest PCs are coming with flash BIOS- this BIOS helps in efficient operations of various devices and also can be upgraded to support new devices.

CMOS:

·         CMOS is known as Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.

·         A PC uses CMOS memory to store date, time and system setup parameters.

·         These parameters are loaded every time whenever a computer is started.

·         A small battery is used on Motherboard to power the CMOS as well as the BIOS.

Power Supply Connectors:

·         These connectors on the motherboard provide the power to various components and devices connected on the motherboard like floppy drive, CD drive etc.

Expansion Slots on Board:

·         PCs are designed in such a way that they can be configured as per the user’s requirements; and in this user defined configuration expansion slots play a big role.

·         Motherboards normally have two or more expansion slots.

·         These slots are used normally for I/O devices. For example: one slot can be used for graphic adaptor card on which the Visual Display Unit can be attached and one another slots can be used for internal MODEM card; etc.

·         These expansion slots are also used to attach external Hard Disk, CD- Drive etc with computer.

·         In general, these are known as Expansion Slots because these slots help to expand the capabilities of computer by linking additional devices to a computer or using computer with added capabilities.

·         For Example: TV tuner card can be used in Expansion Slot to use a computer as a TV.

SIMM/DIMM Slots:

·         SIMM/DIMM stands for Single Inline Memory Modules, while DIMM stands for Double Inline Memory Module.

·         SIMM/DIMM is used to house the RAM modules on motherboard.

·         SIMM is an old

·         These expansion slots are also used to attach external Hard Disk, CD- Drive etc with computer.

·         In general, these are known as Expansion Slots because these slots help to expand the capabilities of computer by linking additional devices to a computer or using computer with added capabilities.

·         For Example: TV tuner card can be used in Expansion Slot to use a computer as a TV.

PCI Slots:

·         PCI Slots is known as Peripheral Component Interconnect Slots.

·         There are many technologies of expansion slots e.g. EISA, ISA and PCI.

·         The PCI is the most popular technology of expansion slots.

·         Presently, almost all the expansion slots provided on the motherboard are of PCI types.

·         The PCI Slots are used for connecting PCI based devices like graphic accelerators card, sound card, internal modem, LAN card, SCSI card etc.

AGP Slots:

·         AGP Slots is known as Accelerator Graphic Processor Slots.

·         AGP slot is normally a part of expansion slots provided on the motherboard or It is provided separately on Motherboard.

·         AGP slot is used for accommodating AGP (Accelerator Graphic Processor) card, which is used for quality visual outputs.

·         All the P-III / P-IV / Core 2 Duo and Celeron Processor based motherboards are available with AGP Expansion Slots.

·         AGP card contains a dedicated graphic processor and Video – RAM (V – RAM) which help to provide high quality graphical outputs.

SCSI Slots:

·         SCSI Slots is known as Small Computer System Interface Slots.

·         It is a device interface that is used to solve the finite and insufficient number of expansion slots problem on the motherboard.

·         When we attach a SCSI card in its slot on a motherboard then SCSI card helps to attach many I/O devices together to a computer with the help of multi – connector cable.

·         SCSI normally acts like an extension cord.

·         The SCSI – 3 can support up to 7 devices simultaneously; chained together on a single SCSI cable.

·         SCSI is also a high speed interface and used for connecting high speed hard disk drives, high speed scanners, etc with a computer.

Ports and Connectors:

·         Ports and Connectors are used for connecting external devices like Printers, Keyboard, Mouse and Scanner etc with a PC. Ports and Connectors are used to connect Input / Output devices to data bus of a motherboard for transfer of data.

·         PC and laptops manufacturers provide different types of ports for connecting different types of devices with computers.

·         Among the popular types of ports are:

o    LPT Port

o    COM Port

o    PS/2 Port

o    USB Port

LPT Port:

·         LPT port is also known as Parallel Port.

·         It transfers many bits simultaneously.

·         Parallel Port uses 25 pins connector.

·         Parallel Port is used for connecting a printer with computer.

COM Port:

·         COM port is also known as Serial Port.

·         It transfers 1 bit at time.

·         Serial Port uses 9 pins connector.

·         Serial Port is used for connecting a MODEM and Mouse to a computer.

PS/2 Port:

·         A 6 pins port used to connect mouse and keyboard to a motherboard.

USB Port:

·         USB Port is also known as Universal Serial Bus.

·         This is the latest and most popular port technology.

·         These are standard ports which provides users a higher data transfer speed.

·         In the recent past, other port types are being replaced with USB Ports.

·         It is expected that in near future computers will have just USB ports only and all the devices in market will be USB Port only and all the devices in market will be USB Port compatible only.

·         We believe this has already started happening and newer computers and devices are primarily based on USB Port only.

·         For example: Printer, Scanner, Monitor, Mouse, Keyboard mobile Phones, Pen drive, etc. are USB port based.

·         Finally, USB Port is easy to use and more reliable in comparison to other pins types of ports.

Other Connectors:

·         There are some other types of connectors on motherboard.

·         These Connectors are used for connecting Floppy Disk and Hard Disk / CD – Drive to a motherboard by using a cable.

·         Floppy Disk is also known as Floppy Disk Drive Connector.

·         Hard Disk is also known as Interface Device Electronic Connector.

 

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