There are some important features of CPU. These are:
§ Clock Speed
§ Cache Memory
§ Multimedia Extension
§ CPU Architecture
· Clock Speed is a measurement of instruction processing speed of CPU.
· Clock Speed is measured in MHZ or GHZ.
· Clocks are equally spaced electric pulses, which are continuously generated by CPU.
· Today’s personal computers run at a clock speed in the hundreds of megahertz and some exceed one gigahertz.
· Clock speed is one measure of computer “power,” but it is not always directly proportional to the performance level.
· The CPU speed determines how many calculations it can perform in one second of time.
· The higher the speed, the more calculations it can perform, thus making the computer faster. While there are several brands of computer processors available, including Intel and AMD, they all use the same CPU speed standard, to determine what speed each of their processors run.
· If a processor has dual or quad cores, the performance of a computer can increase even if the CPU speed remaining the same. For example, a dual core 3.0 GHz processor would be capable of running faster than a single core 3.0 GHz processor.
· Both have the same CPU speed, but the dual core processor can perform more calculations than the single core processor because it has two processing cores instead of just one. Both cores process information at the same time.
· The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer.
· All of the instructions have to run through the CPU for the various parts of a computer to work together.
· CPU chips have been getting smaller and faster as chip technology has advanced.
· A small form of memory located directly on the chip itself. This is the CPU cache.
· It is an internal memory of processor.
· Cache is very high speed memory and it increases the effective performance of computers.
· Cache Memory, which comes along with processor as in-built memory, is known as Level-1 Cache.
· The Cache Memory runs approximately at the speed of processor.
· Present days PC also includes another Cache known as Level-2 Cache.
· Level-2 Cache is slightly slower speed than Level-1 Cache.
· The CPU cache stores the most frequently used pieces of information so they can be retrieved more quickly. This information is a duplicate of information stored elsewhere, but it is more readily available.
· In market, The CPU and Motherboard are available separately.
· Each Motherboard provides a specific space for CPU on it.
· This specific space for CPU on motherboard is known as slot or socket.
· There are two types of slots and sockets on the motherboard.
· Socket-7 is a 321 pins socket and Slot-1 is like a slot for memory card in mobile phone.
· A CPU contains millions of transistors.
· These transistors are used for various calculations and operations on data.
· These transistors are separated from each other with a very small distance, measured in micron.
· Over the years, the distance between transistors in the CPU is reducing due to technology advancements that density of transistors is increasing thus the speed of calculations and other operations on data are also increasing.
· MMX is known as Multimedia Extensions.
· The applications which contain audio, video, special effects and images are known as multimedia applications.
· With the popularity of Multimedia Applications on Computers, PC’s processor started coming with inbuilt instructions for these application to improve the effective processing speed of computers for audio-video or multimedia applications.
· The processor or CPU, which has these inbuilt instructions for multimedia data processing, is known as processor with MMX features.
· MMX is now normal feature of all CPU’s.
· The methods used by a CPU to process and communicate the data inside CPU depend upon CPU Architecture.
· A CPU employs multi channels tracks for transmitting data and also employs an error detection and correction mechanism for data on these channels for proper transmission of data.
· All the microprocessors use bus type of design to transfer bits within the CPU, memory and input/output devices.
· The electrical channels that transfer these bits are known as Buses.
· An 8 bit machine has 8 data channels that transfer 8 bits at a time between components of computer.